Breeding basic terms

Heritability
The Heritability of a population is the proportion of observable differences between individuals that is due to genetic differences. Factors including genetics, environment and random chance can all contribute to the variation between individuals in their observable characteristics (in their "phenotypes"). Heritability thus analyzes the relative contributions of differences in genetic and non-genetic factors to the total phenotypic variance in a population. For instance, some humans in a population are taller than others; heritability attempts to identify how much genetics are playing a role in part of the population being extra tall.
Heritability is measured by estimating the relative contributions of genetic and non-genetic differences to the total phenotypic variation in a population. Heritability is an important concept in quantitative genetics, particularly in selective breeding and behaviour genetics (for instance twin studies), but is less widely used in population genetics.
pheno type (the observable properties of a trait in an individual) =
geno type (genetic make-up of a trait in an individual) + enviromental deviation
 
Congenital disorder
A congenital disorder, or congenital disease, is a condition existing at birth and often before birth, or that develops during the first month of life (neonatal disease), regardless of causation. Of these diseases, those characterized by structural deformities are termed "congenital anomalies"; that is a different concept which involves defects in or damage to a developing fetus.
A congenital disorder may be the result of genetic abnormalities, the intrauterine (uterus) environment, errors of morphogenesis, infection, or a chromosomal abnormality. The outcome of the disorder will depend on complex interactions between the pre-natal deficit and the post-natal environment.
 
COI (Coefficient Of Inbreeding)
gene distribution
In population genetics, Sewall Wright's coefficient of relationship or coefficient of relatedness or relatedness is defined as 2 times the coefficient of kinship. The 'coefficient of kinship' (or: coefficient of coancestry) is defined as the probability that the alleles at a particular locus chosen at random from two individuals are identical by descent.
My private graduation: 0 - 10% light inbreeding; 10 - 25% intermediate and >25% strong inbreeding
 
ALC (Ancestor Loss Coefficient)
The Ancestor Loss Coefficient is a good indication for the amount of linebreeding and inbreeding or the degree of kinship of a certain dog. The ALC for n-generation family tree is calculated by the number of actual (unique - unrepeatable) ancestors, and the total number of possible ancestors. A pedigree with some inbreeding might have only 56 unique dogs (of 62 possible ones) in 5 generations, this equals to a Ancestor Loss of about 10% (ALC=90%).
 
EBV (Estimated Breeding Value) (my private favorite subject!)
The breeding value, is a measure of how much an individual's genetic make up contributes to the phenotypic value of the next generation. The breeding value is a calculation determined by the gene frequencies in a population for a given locus, and a measure called the average effect.
When considering an allele, we would like to know how much that single allele, if found in an offspring, will change the trait measure of that individual away from the population mean. This is called the average effect. With a calculated EBV a breeder may make more informed decisions about matings that should ultimately lead to greater improvements at least more than counting titles like national, international, grand or/and supreme champion!
 
Text from Wikipedia